There are six different major types of binoculars. They are Roof Prism, Porro Prism, Marine, Night Vision, and Opera Glasses, and Astronomical Binoculars.
Different Types of Binoculars
Roof Prism Binoculars
Roof Prism Binoculars are straight-lined and considered more compact than old-styled ones. While they bear a simple look on the outside, they have a complex machination inside.
This type of binoculars makes better magnifications as well as brightness. The light coming from your object just comes into the objective lenses, bounces in some convoluted pathways, then reaches to the ocular lenses and eyes.
However, it is comparatively more expensive than the mother models. In addition, some Roof Prism models bear a narrow view field.
Porro Prism Binoculars
Porro Prism Binoculars were first developed by Ignazio Porro, in the 19th century. It generally works by transferring the light coming from objective lenses, passing it through the triangular light-catchers in a horizontal jag. So, you can find a sharp and magnified view of your object.
It is good for sporting events, astronomy, or scouting. This binocular ensures good 3D imaging and a wide view field. It is simpler and often used for general purposes.
But they are a little bit bulky. You may find a lower magnification here.
These binoculars are specially designed to work underwater. While swimming under, what kind of features do you want from a binocular? Just a longer view field, as well as lower magnification, are enough. So, it consists of a wider objective and ocular lens.
Marine binoculars are waterproof. These are often used for whale viewing, ship watching, and many other marine operations. But as a disadvantage, Marine Binoculars are quite expensive.
Night Vision Binoculars
If you are searching binoculars for low-light watching, Night Vision Binoculars are for you. These are said to be electronically assisted optics. These binoculars are used for wildlife watching, night explorations, etc.
A night vision bino takes a low amount of light and amplifies in photon-enhancing components. So, the viewer will achieve to navigate the low light and get a brighter image. But some users complain that they are quite expensive and fragile.
For astronomical views, the telescope is great. But if you are searching for an on-hand view, astronomy binoculars are suitable. Astronomy binoculars are available in different sizes and strengths.
Some of them easily fit your pocket whereas some others need tripods. Its dual ocular lenses give a larger view field. However, they are pricey and you may need an extra tripod to use them.
Opera glasses are generally used for watching theaters, opera, or any drama shows. Users take it to catch all the movements the actors and singers make. They are frankly and stylish.
These don’t have any high magnifications. But they are enough for enjoying concerts or sporting events. Because of their low powers, you will have watching pleasure.
Types of Military Binoculars
There are mainly three types of binoculars that are used by military soldiers. M22, M24, M25 are the names.
1. M22 Military Binocular
Fulfills the all needs of a warfighter. It is usable for both the Army and Marines.
These are fog and waterproof. It bears a wide view angle of 7.5-degrees. M22 binoculars are Porro Prism type binoculars. Besides, it has 7X magnification ability and objective lenses of 50 mm.
2. M24 Military Binocular
M24 is comparatively small and fits any of your pockets. It is lighter, bears only 1.26 pounds. Though it is smaller than the M24, it can give the same magnification as M24 and an objective lens of 28 mm.
3. M25 Military Binocular
M25 is the best type of binocular for warfighters because it bears 14X optics and ensures larger ranges with on-the-move watching abilities. It is said to be a stabilized binocular. At the optical pathway of M25, it contains a gimbaled platform. You will find an accurate gyroscope there by which the fighters can get a steady image without any unwanted movement of lenses.
Construction of Binoculars
Nowadays lenses and prisms inside the binocular frame are made from glass. These are protected with anti-reflective coatings. The binocular frames are usually made of aluminum. They bear silicon coating and leather material over the aluminum frame.
Firstly, the binocular design is produced in the Computer Assisted Design system. The manufacturers check the drawing, parameters, the other capabilities and make the final design.
At first, binocular lenses are cut 4-inch in diameter and nearly 1.5-inch in width. Manufacturers cut these using the diamond saw.
Then they take the lenses into the grinding machine to make perfect polishing. They put the lenses in vacuum tanks, apply coatings and anodize to minimize reflection.
Labors carefully polish the ocular lenses (using auto polished machines). After that, they flow different solvents through the lenses and clean those. The objective lenses are then cleaned using a polishing machine.
After that, they set the components in an aluminum-made body. Experts then examine the lens and search for any defect or fault by laser rays. For high performance, they apply dielectric coatings by placing lenses in a plasma machine.
Next, experts cut the prisms with laser rays. They make them three-sided, coat them with metal oxides inside the vacuum chamber. Now, it is to make the left side exactly parallel and symmetric to the right side. All components are set on a line called the belt assembly line.
Manufacturers cover the full binocular housing with flexible leather. Bino makers place the prisms inside the bino casing and screw them by hand. The eyepiece is fixed by an eye cap whereas the objective lenses are set by metal rings. They assemble focusing lenses by manually screwing.
Parts of a Binocular
A binocular consists of three parts.
These stay at the end and take the view of the object first. How much light you can get or the resolution depends on the objective lens size.
The light from the image goes through the prism. Normally prism mirrors the image light and passes it by making a normal image.
The part that stays at the closest place of eyes. It takes the image that is sent by objective lenses, magnifies, and shows it to the viewer.
Differences between Roof Prism & Porro Prism binoculars?
Roof Prism bino has a complex path inside and needs more accuracy to make. However, Porro Prism binoculars are simple in design and give better contrast.
Which is the best magnification of binoculars?
7X to 10X magnification is enough for most of the cases. But for watching theaters, 3X to 5X can go.
Q: What lenses do binoculars use?
Ans: Prism binoculars use convex lenses both for objective and eyepiece lenses.
Q: What is the most powerful binocular?
Ans: OberWerk BT-100-45 is the world’s most powerful binocular with 7 pounds of optical glass and 75X magnification.
Know the all merits and demerits of the major binocular types, read what steps and what materials are needed to make a complete binocular here. This article will help you to purchase a perfect bino for you.